Hi everyone


Someone I know who has PD recently told me that there where eight different forms of PD, which surprised me, but he did not know himself what they were. Can anyone out there verify this and could they name the different forms. I was diagnosed with PD two and half years ago, but I don't know exactly which form I have myself. It would be interesting to know.



Hello, Shefinn --

I have never heard Parkinson's divided into neat categories like that.  It varies so much from person to person that it seems to defy classifications of all sorts.  I do know that early onset PD is considered a "type" of the disease.  Some people say inherited PD is a type unto itself.  But if there are eight varieties that can be distinguished, maybe someone else will post and both you and I will learn from that.

Best regards!

Hi J,

This is totally unrelated to this post. I was just searching for you and this one is your most recent I think.

Can you help me with punctuation?

The apostrophe......'s..........s' can you explain this to me.

Also which is correct.....

.....word"? he said.

.....word?" he said.

.....word," ? comma or no comma ? where does he said fit in?

Inverted commas come before or after ? ! etc.

I have never understood punctuation.



Hi Orpheus, all that underworld travelling can play havoc with your apostrophes.

For all your grammar and styleguide needs look no further than the home of good style.


Thanks Semele, had a quick look, but it needs more research. No doubt what I want is in there somewhere. I'll look later.

Hi, Orpheus --

I just found your post of punctuation questions.  The apostrophe isn't too complicated; the quotation marks are a different story.  In general, if a word is singular, indicate possession by adding apostrophe + S.  (Examples:  girl's purse, beauty's name)  If the word is plural, it usually ends in S, so just add an apostrophe after the S.  (Ex.:  girls' purses, beauties' names)  If a plural noun does not end in S, add apostrophe + S.  (Ex.: women's magazine)  A grammar book would include a few more fine points, but that's basically the picture.

When it comes to quotation marks, British usage and American usage differ.  In general, the idea is to include between quotation marks only the exact words spoken.  (Ex.:  "Great idea!" he said.  "I wish I'd thought of that.")  However, the order of punctuation marks varies.  The problems or questions occur around the closing, not the opening, quotation marks.  What punctuation goes inside, and what punctuation goes outside those marks?  The British rules are more logical, I find, keeping the quotation marks closer to the words quoted; but American rules defy change as well as logic.  I often had to tell my students, "Just because it's the custom!  It's a writing convention without much sense."  

I don't think I'll attempt to summarize all the rules I'm referring to.  At this point, it is time to take Semele's advice and seek the details online or in an old-fashioned grammar book.

Hey!  Are you still awake?

You are in the majority, probably, in feeling uncertain about punctuation.  When my husband was earning his master's degree, I proofread all his papers before he submitted them.  He had trouble with commas.  He told me his general comma usage rule was to put in a comma approximately every three inches!      J  

Thank you kindly J. I have copied and saved the above information. I have book marked Semele's recommended web page and will investigate that further when I have a little more time. Hopefully my grammar will improve.

Hi J and O

Well I never thought I'd be using this site to debate the finer points of grammar! Makes a change, I suppose.

J is right on apostrophes and understandable on closing punctuation. I tend to follow a rule of putting the closing punctuation within the quote mark - unless it looks wrong, when I move it. The only grammar rule you really need is - does this facilitate or slow up my readers' comprehension?

As to commas, write how it feels. Then go back and take out all the commas you can until just before the sentence stops making sense or flows differently to how you want it. Only exception: I *love* the Oxford comma.

I have no sense that your grammar needs to "improve", O. What you have written in post 7 seems to me both functional and elegant (and don't let anyone sneer at your "hopefully"). (And I'm sure that closing bracket needs to sit outside the quote mark.)

Very best, both


Thanks Semele.

Don't worry about me being slagged off, I have broad shoulders, a good sense of humour and I am always happy to receive both constructive criticism and further education.

J has already helped me a lot in respect of how I come across. I addressed this issue and hopefully I sound more like I want to sound. Not cold and factual. The written word is difficult because there is no inflection in it. What sounds right in my mind was not how it sounded in cold hard print. J did a brilliant job of guiding me through this. I expect her to keep an eye on me (lol)

Hi, Semele and Orpheus --

I like your common sense approach, S.  After all, the purpose of punctuation is really to clarify.  And O. would still be an eloquent writer even if no commas ever appeared!

But, Orpheus, Semele demonstrated the difference I mentioned between British and American practice with closing quotation marks.  [I have no sense that your grammar needs to "improve", O.]  Illogical American usage requires the comma inside the q. marks instead of letting the q. marks enclose the emphasized word directly.

"Correctness" has its place in formal writing, but otherwise only a crazed old English teacher  would give a #*&!*@ where you put your commas, guys!

#*&!*@....please clarify J ........he he he! Oh I love it when I'm not the only one. #*&!*@ing brilliant.