Hi, Orpheus --
I just found your post of punctuation questions. The apostrophe isn't too complicated; the quotation marks are a different story. In general, if a word is singular, indicate possession by adding apostrophe + S. (Examples: girl's purse, beauty's name) If the word is plural, it usually ends in S, so just add an apostrophe after the S. (Ex.: girls' purses, beauties' names) If a plural noun does not end in S, add apostrophe + S. (Ex.: women's magazine) A grammar book would include a few more fine points, but that's basically the picture.
When it comes to quotation marks, British usage and American usage differ. In general, the idea is to include between quotation marks only the exact words spoken. (Ex.: "Great idea!" he said. "I wish I'd thought of that.") However, the order of punctuation marks varies. The problems or questions occur around the closing, not the opening, quotation marks. What punctuation goes inside, and what punctuation goes outside those marks? The British rules are more logical, I find, keeping the quotation marks closer to the words quoted; but American rules defy change as well as logic. I often had to tell my students, "Just because it's the custom! It's a writing convention without much sense."
I don't think I'll attempt to summarize all the rules I'm referring to. At this point, it is time to take Semele's advice and seek the details online or in an old-fashioned grammar book.
Hey! Are you still awake?
You are in the majority, probably, in feeling uncertain about punctuation. When my husband was earning his master's degree, I proofread all his papers before he submitted them. He had trouble with commas. He told me his general comma usage rule was to put in a comma approximately every three inches! J